Veterinary Evidence 2019-12-04T10:02:35+00:00 Jennifer Morris Open Journal Systems Veterinary Evidence is an online only, open access, peer-reviewed journal owned and published by RCVS Knowledge. It publishes content relating to evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM) and its application in veterinary practice to enhance the quality of care provided to patients. An evaluation of the use of ronidazole for the treatment of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats 2019-12-04T10:02:35+00:00 Genever Bethan Morgan <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In cats infected with&nbsp;<em>Tritrichomonas foetus</em>, does treatment with oral ronidazole compared to an alternative antiprotozoal treatment or placebo result in successful resolution of clinical signs and eradication of disease?</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p>Ronidazole use appears to be efficacious in eradicating infection with&nbsp;<em>Tritrichomonas foetus</em>&nbsp;and resolving diarrhoea associated with infection. A dose range of 30–50 mg/kg 12–24 hourly has been suggested, with evidence suggesting that a dose of 30 mg/kg 24 hourly for 14 days may be effective. However, some cats may require higher doses and some may not respond to treatment, and relapse may occur during a protracted period following completion of the treatment course. Neurological side effects appear to be uncommon but may occur with doses of 30 mg/kg and above.</p> <p>A total of six studies are reviewed: Three randomised, controlled studies, one cohort study and two case series (one retrospective). Findings indicate efficacy of ronidazole treatment in eradicating infection and resolving diarrhoea, however many studies involved small sample sizes and limited follow-up. Therefore, evidence to support the use of ronidazole in&nbsp;<em>Tritrichomonas foetus&nbsp;</em>infected cats remains relatively limited.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="" alt="Open Access"> <img src="" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2019-12-04T09:57:59+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Genever Bethan Morgan Cats that get stressed when visiting the veterinary practice: can gabapentin help improve their welfare? 2019-11-27T12:59:20+00:00 Louise Anne Buckley <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In cats which are stressed as a consequence of veterinary interventions does gabapentin administration, compared with no gabapentin, result in lower levels of stress?</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p>There is moderate to good evidence to indicate that a single dose (100 mg) of oral gabapentin administered to cats might reduce signs of acute stress associated with veterinary visits. Two blinded, randomised, placebo controlled trials were reviewed, with consistency of direction of effect for the main outcome measure (Cat Stress Score) assessed.</p> <p><br><img src="" alt="Open Access"> <img src="" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2019-11-27T11:35:40+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Louise Anne Buckley In newborn piglets does drying versus no intervention reduce the risk of mortality pre-weaning? 2019-11-12T15:43:46+00:00 Nicola Blackie <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In newborn piglets, does drying piglets, compared to no intervention, reduce the level of mortality pre-weaning (up to 28 days)?</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p>Data specifically evaluating drying piglets are limited. Many papers had multiple factors evaluated or were assessments of management in general. There is evidence that drying piglets can reduce mortality and improve thermoregulation of piglets. The cost of such interventions has not been appraised and should be considered on a case-by-case basis. Therefore, currently when advising farmers it could be suggested that the drying of piglets may form part of a number of recommendations given to reduce piglet mortality pre-weaning.</p> <p><br><img src="" alt="Open Access"> <img src="" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2019-11-12T14:50:33+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Nicola Blackie Does intra-articular injection of antimicrobials alongside corticosteroids or other medications reduce the risk of synovial sepsis? 2019-11-07T10:03:13+00:00 Helen R Braid <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In horses, does treatment with intra-articular antimicrobials concurrently with intra-articular corticosteroids reduce the risk of iatrogenic synovial sepsis compared to intra-articular corticosteroids alone?</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p>From the current literature, there is no evidence showing that intra-articular injection of antibiotics in conjunction with corticosteroids reduces the risk of synovial sepsis. However, the intra-articular injection of polysulphated glycosaminoglycans (PSGAGs) in combination with corticosteroids was noted as a risk factor for developing iatrogenic synovial sepsis and therefore concurrent antibiotic injection when administering PSGAGs may be warranted. The reported frequency of infection following intra-articular injections was very low (0.02–0.08%).&nbsp; An overall prevalence of iatrogenic synovial sepsis following all intra-articular injections based on data from all included studies was calculated as 0.02% (CI 0.02–0.03%). However, due to the paucity of literature on the topic, further studies are required in this field to determine more accurate clinical recommendations.</p> <p><img src="" alt="Open Access"> <img src="" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2019-10-30T15:17:52+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Helen R Braid Can changes in hoof wall temperature and digital pulse pressure be used to predict laminitis onset? 2019-10-16T10:04:22+00:00 Honoria Brown <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In horses and ponies at risk of laminitis, does the use of hoof wall temperature and digital pulse pressure as diagnostic techniques for acute laminitis provide a method of detecting acute laminitis in the prodromal stage?</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <ul> <li>A palpable bilateral increase in forelimb hoof temperature maintained for longer than half a day may indicate that the horse is 18–­24 hours from acute laminitis onset.</li> <li>A period of increased digital pulse may also be expected up to 11 hours prior to onset.</li> <li>Further studies using larger and more representative cohorts are required to confirm the accuracy of the times at which such changes can be expected.</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="" alt="Open Access"> <img src="" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2019-10-16T10:00:29+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Honoria Brown In canine acute diarrhoea with no identifiable cause, does daily oral probiotic improve the clinical outcomes? 2019-10-10T14:55:56+00:00 Jacqueline Oi Ping Tong <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In canine acute diarrhoea with no identifiable cause, does a daily probiotic supplement in diet, compared to no probiotic supplement, provide better clinical outcomes?</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p>Five placebo-controlled trials suggested a daily oral probiotic supplement provides better clinical outcomes to dogs that have acute diarrhoea (present &lt; 14 days) without an identifiable cause. However, the strength of the evidence is limited and there is uncertainty around the clinical relevance of the studies to some of the outcomes. The probiotic agents, dose, dosing interval, the feeding methods, diets and the duration of treatment were varied in these studies. These variations can lead to different clinical outcomes.</p> <p><br><img src="" alt="Open Access"> <img src="" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2019-10-10T13:45:25+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Jacqueline Oi Ping Tong Is removal of proximo-plantar osteochondral fragments necessary in young Thoroughbreds? 2019-10-03T09:44:39+00:00 Julia Dubuc Christopher Akkari <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In young Thoroughbreds with osteochondral fragments of the proximo-plantar aspect of the proximal phalanx, does pre-emptive surgical removal of the fragments compared to conservative (non-surgical) management reduce the incidence of subsequent lameness?</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p>There is currently insufficient data to determine the impact, on subsequent lameness, of conservative versus surgical management of proximo-plantar osteochondral fragments in young Thoroughbreds. Indeed, only three relevant studies were found, which include one retrospective study and two smaller case series. Since there are no substantive studies that have specifically focused on the treatment of plantar osteochondral fragmentation in Thoroughbred racehorses, the strength of evidence currently available is low.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="" alt="Open Access"> <img src="" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2019-10-03T09:31:45+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Julia Dubuc A scoping review of the current literature exploring the nature of the horse-human relationship 2019-11-20T10:51:19+00:00 John Burford H. G. R. Clough Gary England Sarah Louise Freeman Amanda Roshier <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To perform a scoping review of the current evidence on the horse-human relationship.</p> <p><strong>Background:</strong> The horse-human relationship has a significant impact on how horse owners care for and make decisions for their horse.</p> <p><strong>Evidentiary value:</strong> Identification of consensus and gaps in current evidence.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A literature search was performed in CAB Abstracts and Medline using search terms relating to the nature of the horse-human relationship in horses used for pleasure riding. Publications were reviewed against inclusion and exclusion criteria. Original qualitative or observational research studies relating to the relationship between a horse and owner were analysed. Data were extracted on study method and population characteristics.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were 4,481 studies identified; 27 studies were included in the final data extraction. The studies covered 11 different areas, the most frequent were effect of humans on equine behaviour (5/27), equine training methods and behaviour (4/27) and horses within sport and leisure (4/27). A range of methodologies were used, with the most frequent being thematic analysis (6/27 studies), use of an instrument, tool or scale (3/27) and behavioural scoring (4/27). The majority of studies considered the human’s perspective (20/27), six considered the horse perspective and one considered both the horse and human perspective. No studies investigated the same or similar aims or objectives.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The current evidence on the horse-human relationship is diverse and heterogenous, which limits the strength of evidence for any particular area.</p> <p class="Default"><strong>Application:</strong> Future research should focus on developing reliable and repeatable tools to assess owner motivations and horse-human relationship, to develop a body of evidence.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="" alt="Open Access"> <img src="" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2019-11-20T10:26:11+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Sarah Louise Freeman Grading the evidence and writing the clinical bottom line 2019-12-02T22:01:12+00:00 Peter Cockcroft <p>The clinical bottom line in a Knowledge Summary provides the reader with a qualified answer to the clinical question posed.</p> <p>It is important that this section has a consistent format and that the readers are able to understand what the clinical bottom line means and how to interpret the information.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-02T10:27:43+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Peter Cockcroft