Veterinary Evidence 2019-08-23T12:00:54+00:00 Jenny Morris Open Journal Systems Outcome of Electrosurgery Versus Scalpel Blade for Intestinal Incisions in Dogs 2019-08-23T12:00:54+00:00 Emmanouil Tzimtzimis <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In dogs that undergo intestinal surgery, does the use of monopolar electrosurgery for intestinal incisions increase the risk of dehiscence when compared to a scalpel blade?</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p>Currently there are two experimental in vivo studies comparing electrosurgery with scalpel blade intestinal incisions in dogs, one in cats and one in pigs. In dogs and cats, there is data regarding incisions on the large intestine but not the small intestine.</p> <p>Colotomy and colectomy performed with monopolar electrosurgery has resulted in significant mortality (up to 60%) during the short-term postoperative period in dogs. Although the studies reviewed have several limitations, the outcome using scalpel blades was significantly better, therefore colonic surgery using electrosurgery is contraindicated. It is likely that small intestinal surgery has the same contraindication but more definite conclusions cannot be made until higher quality evidence is available.</p> <p><br><img src="" alt="Open Access"> <img src="" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2019-08-14T11:11:26+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Emmanouil Tzimtzimis Comparing Rest Alone to Bandaging and Rest in Horses With Superficial Digital Flexor Tendinopathy 2019-08-23T11:59:53+00:00 Rafael Alzola Sarah Louise Freeman <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In horses with superficial digital flexor tendonitis is bandaging and rest compared to rest alone more effective at promoting healing?</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p>There is currently a lack of scientific evidence to suggest that bandaging promotes effective tendon healing following injury. However, rigid bandages significantly&nbsp;limit lesion propagation in equine superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendinopathies. The result of this PICO question suggests that a short period (ten days) of cast immobilisation during the initial inflammatory phase of the injury improves prognosis by limiting lesion propagation. The level of confidence in the outcomes from the body of evidence in the four studies identified is moderate.</p> <p><br><img src="" alt="Open Access"> <img src="" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2019-08-06T13:48:01+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Rafael Alzola, Sarah Louise Freeman The Effects of Biannual Equine Influenza Vaccine on Performance in Adult Horses 2019-08-23T11:55:54+00:00 Emma Shipman <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In three day event horses, does biannual routine influenza vaccination compared to annual routine influenza vaccination reduce performance levels?</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong><strong><br></strong></p> <p>There is no evidence that biannual equine influenza vaccination compared to annual booster vaccination in three day event horses is associated with reduced performance.</p> <p>A group of five studies published over an 11 year period from one were evaluated. In adult warmblood horses there is weak evidence that exercise in the 28 day period post booster vaccination for equine influenza and equine herpes virus 1 and 4 (EHV1&amp;4), is associated with changes in physical and clinical pathophysiological parameters including total red blood cell (RBC) count, neutrophil and lymphocyte count, fibrinogen concentration and serum proteins. These changes occurred at variable time points in the 14 days post exercise and values were not outside the published reference ranges for the reporting laboratories where published. Athletic performance of the horses was not evaluated.</p> <p>No recommendations for equine influenza vaccination protocols in three day event horses can be made from the evidence.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="" alt="Open Access"> <img src="" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2019-07-26T09:11:33+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Emma Shipman Performance and Behavioural Effects of Separating Dairy Cows and Their Calves at Birth 2019-08-23T12:00:35+00:00 Michael Steele <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In Dairy Cows and Calves separated at birth vs. suckled with the mother, are there any behavioural and performance effects on both cow and/or calf?</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p>Calves allowed to suckle from their mothers show stronger behavioural bonds at weaning and appear to gain more weight (at weaning) than separated and automatically fed calves. However, due to the milk yield loss and subsequent favourable weight gains after weaning from ad lib suckling, automatically fed groups make separation at birth a preferable economic decision.</p> <p><br><img src="" alt="Open Access"> <img src="" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2019-07-19T09:24:44+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Michael Steele Reducing Veterinary Waste: Surgical Site Infection Risk and the Ecological Impact of Woven and Disposable Drapes 2019-08-23T09:32:26+00:00 Molly Vasanthakumar <strong>PICO question</strong><br /><p>In animals undergoing surgery, does the use of disposable synthetic drapes reduce the risk of surgical site infections when compared to reusable woven drapes?</p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong><br /><p>Current literature on the risk of surgical site infection with disposable and reusable drapes in animals is limited. Three human studies were reviewed, one systematic review and two controlled trials. Both these study types generally provide high levels of evidence; however their individual limitations reduce the quality of their data. Overall the results were mixed, and due to the small number of reviewed papers and the fact that only one study specifically measured surgical site infection as the outcome, it is not possible to conclude that disposable drapes reduce the risk of surgical site infections (SSI) when compared to reusable drapes.</p><p>The impact of the veterinary profession on the ecosystem is often ignored. When following the One Health concept, vets must consider the ecological impact of clinical decisions. Choosing reusable drapes for certain clean, elective procedures may be a way to reduce waste without compromising the health of patients.</p><br /> <img src="" alt="Open Access" /> <img src="" alt="Peer Reviewed" /> 2019-07-05T10:25:51+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Molly Annushka Vasanthakumar