Photo of the author

Comparative Gene Approach to the Investigation of SNPs within the Tenascin-C Gene in Achilles Tendon Injury in the Canine Patient

Nina R Kieves, Alycen P Lundberg, Vicki L Wilke

Published:  04/08/2016    in:  Articles

Photo of the author

Objective: To evaluate for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the tenascin-C (TNC) gene in a population of dogs with atraumatic Achilles tendon rupture.

Background: In humans, Achilles tendinopathy has been extensively studied for numerous polymorphisms within several genes and has been associated with polymorphisms in collagen (COL5A1) and the TNC genes.

Evidentiary value: This study serves as a starting point for evaluating a genetic component of Achilles tendinopathy in the dog.

Methods: Whole blood from twenty dogs with atraumatic Achilles tendon rupture and 14 matched control samples were used. DNA was extracted from whole blood run with primers designed around two SNPs previously identified to be related to Achilles tendinopathy in humans. One SNP was located in exon 29, and one exon 17 of the canine TNC gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was run on the samples and they were sequenced. Sequences of the affected canine population were compared to the control sample sequences.

Results: There were no significant differences in genotype or allele frequency of the SNPs rs13321 and rs2104772 between any of the affected and control subjects with a p-value of 1.0.

Conclusion: This study evaluated a population of canines with atraumatic Achilles tendon rupture for SNPs in the TNC gene. We found no difference in gene sequence for the study population compared to age, sex, and breed matched controls.

Application: Though the data from this study did not show a correlation between the specific polymorphisms investigated, it is possible that other SNPs within the TNC gene or other genes involved in tendon composition and repair such as collagen may be associated with atraumatic Achilles tendon injury in the dog. 

Open AccessPeer Reviewed
Full Text:


Click to see References Click to hide References

  1. Charmichael, S. and Marshall, W. (2012) Tarsus and Metatarsus. In: Tobias KM, Johnston SA. Veterinary Surgery: Small Animal, St. Louis MO: Elsevier, pp. 1014-1028.
  2. Meustage, F.J. (1993) The Classification of Canine Achilles’ Tendon Lesions. Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology, (1), pp. 57-59.
  3. Mahieu, N.N. et al. (2006) Intrinsic Risk Factors for the Development of Achilles Tendon Overuse Injury: A Prospective Study. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 34 (2), pp. 226-35.
  4. September, A.V. Schwellnus, M.P. and Collins, M. (2007) Tendon and Ligament Injuries: The Genetic Component. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 41 (4), pp. 241-246.
  5. Kannus, P. and Natri, A. (1997) Etiology and Pathophysiology of Tendon Ruptures in Sports. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 7 (2), pp. 107-12.
  6. Maffulli, N. and Kader, D. (2002) Tendinopathy of Tendo Achillis. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 84 (1) pp. 1-8.
  7. Saunders, C.J. et al. (2013) Investigation of Variants within the COL27A1 and TNC Genes and Achilles Tendinopathy in Two Populations. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 31(4), pp. 632-637.
  8. Hay M, et al. (2013) Association of Type XI Collagen Genes with Chronic Achilles Tendinopathy in Independent Populations Form South Africa and Australia. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47 (9), pp. 569-74.
  9. Posthumus, M. et al. (2009) Investigation of the SP1-Binding Site Polymorphism within the COL1A1 Gene in Participants with Achilles Tendon Injuries and Controls. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12 (1) pp. 184-189.
  10. Raleigh, S.M. et al. (2009) Variants within the MMP3 Gene Are Associated with Achilles Tendinopathy: Possible Interaction with the COL5A1 Gene. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43 (7), pp. 514-520.
  11. September AV, et al. (2009) Variants within the COL5A1 Gene Are Associated with Achilles Tendinopathy in Two Populations. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43 (5), pp. 357-365.
  12. September, A.V. et al. (2008) The COL12A1 and COL14A1 Genes and Achilles Tendon Injuries. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 29 (3), pp. 257-263.
  13. Magra, M. and Maffulli, M. (2007) Genetics: Does It Play a Role in Tendinopathy? Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 17 (4), pp. 231-33.
  14. Abrahams, Y. et al. (2013) Polymorphisms within the Col5A1 3'-UTR That Alters mRNA Structure and the MIR608 Gene Are Associated with Achilles Tendinopathy. Annals of Human Genetics, 77 (3), pp. 204-214.
  15. Mokone, G.G. et al. (2006) The COL5A1 Gene and Achilles Tendon Pathology. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 16 (1), pp. 19-26.
  16. Mokone, G.G. et al. (2005) The Guanine-Thymine Dinucleotide Repeat Polymorphism Within the Tenascin-C Gene Is Associated With Achilles Tendon Injury. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 33 (7), pp. 1016-1021.
  17. Riley, G.P. et al. (1996) Tenascin-C and Human Tendon Degeneration. The American Journal of Pathology, 149 (3), pp. 933-43.
  18. Mehr, D. et al. (2000) Tenascin-C in Tendon Regions Subjected to Compression. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 18 (4), pp. 537-45.
  19. Ribbans, W.J. and Collins, M. (2013) Pathology of the Tendo Achillis: Do Our Genes Contribute? The Bone & Joint Journal, 95-B (3), pp. 305–13.
  20. Postumus M, et al. (2010) The Association between the COL12A1 Gene and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ruptures. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44 (16), pp. 1160-5.
  21. Postumus, M. et al. (2009) Genetic Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ruptures: COL1A1 Gene Variant. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43 (5), pp. 352-6.
  22. QIAamp® (2005) DNA Blood Midi/Maxi Handbook. [online] Available from: [Accessed February 2010]

  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Nina R Kieves

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Made possible through a project grant from the RCVS Council.